Key mitigation for pest
The import of both Malus and Juniperus are already restricted from outside the EU. However, the bonsai derogations found in 2010/645/EU, 2002/499/EC and 2002/887/EC), indicate that dwarfed Juniperus species from Japan and South Korea can be imported between November and March if they are subject to strict phytosanitary measures, which include routine inspections for G. yamadae. These measures are highly likely to prevent the export of Juniperus infected with G. yamadae, unless infection occurs immediately prior to export whilst the host is asymptomatic. Because of the very stringent restrictions on the import of all recorded hosts of this pest, the mitigated likelihood scores have been reduced to a 1.