UK Risk Register Details for Gymnosporangium yamadae

Common Names

  • Apple juniper rust
  • Japanese apple rust
  • Japanese rust of apple

Scenario and Pathways

Scenario for Risk Register

  • show / hide
  • Pest is introduced

Pathway Assessed for Entry to UK

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)

Common Pathways

  • show / hide
This section is currently being developed as part of the next phase of the Risk Register.

Risk Ratings and Current Mitigations

Unmitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 3
Spread [1 - 5] 3
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 4
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 9
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 36

Current Mitigations

  • show / hide

Key mitigation for pest

The import of both Malus and Juniperus are already restricted from outside the EU. However, the bonsai derogations found in 2010/645/EU, 2002/499/EC and 2002/887/EC), indicate that dwarfed Juniperus species from Japan and South Korea can be imported between November and March if they are subject to strict phytosanitary measures, which include routine inspections for G. yamadae. These measures are highly likely to prevent the export of Juniperus infected with G. yamadae, unless infection occurs immediately prior to export whilst the host is asymptomatic. Because of the very stringent restrictions on the import of all recorded hosts of this pest, the mitigated likelihood scores have been reduced to a 1.



Industry Scheme

Contingency Plan



Mitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 1
Spread [1 - 5] 3
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 4
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 3
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 12

Proposed Actions

Proposed Actions



Management By Industry

Targeted Survey


Contingency Plan



Distribution and Pest Details


Country Status Notes
United Kingdom Absent
Russia Present (Unknown Distribution)
North America
Canada Present (Widespread)
United States Present (Widespread)
China Present (Widespread)
Japan Present (Widespread)
South Korea Present (Widespread)

Type of Pest

  • Fungus

Host or Industry at Risk

  • show / hide

Malus, and Juniperus

Major Hosts

  • Juniperus L.
  • Malus Mill.

Threats to Protected Cultivation

  • Both protected crops and outdoor production

Forest Tree Pests and Pathogens

  • Broadleaved & Coniferous

Further Information

PRA Availability

PRA not available

EU and EPPO Listing

Annex I/A1

Actions Indicated

  • show / hide


Statutory action against findings

General Comments

Rust fungus from Asia, North America and Russia, affecting apple and juniper. Import restrictions help to mitigate risk of introduction

Further Information


  • show / hide

Key uncertainty for pest

Taxonomy of previous interceptions of related species.

Climate - Cause

Current distribution - Cause

Hosts - Cause

Impact - Cause

Pathways - Cause

Regulation - Cause

Taxonomy - Cause

UK distribution - Cause

Risk Records for this Pest