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This project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 613688

Publications

SCIENTIFIC OPINIONS

SCIENTIFIC OPINIONS


FoodIntegrity Work Package 1 is in the process of publishing 8 Scientific Opinions on difficult stakeholder derived issues that concern food fraud. The topics were all identified by stakeholders and are intended as documents that describe best practices.


Below are the Links to the Scientific Opinions that have been published so far:


SO1: Stable isotope techniques for verifying the declared geographical origin of food in legal cases.
Federica Camin, Markus Boner, Luana Bontempo, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, Simon D. Kelly, Janet Riedl, Andreas Rossmann

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224416302771

SO3A: What are the scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted methods for food fraud testing and how can they be addressed? – Spectroscopy case study
Terry F. McGrath, Simon A. Haughey, Jenny Patterson, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, James Donarski, Martin Alewijn, Saskia van Ruth, Christopher T. Elliott

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224417307938

SO3B: The scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted mass spectrometric methods for food fraud analysis: A proposed validation workflow to bring about a harmonized approach
Daniele Cavanna, Laura Righetti, Chris Elliott, Michele Suman

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224418302449

Low-field 1H NMR spectroscopy for distinguishing between arabica and robusta ground roast coffees

Low-field 1H NMR spectroscopy for distinguishing between arabica and robusta ground roast coffees

Robusta coffee is harsh and bitter compared to the milder, more aromatic arabica. Robusta is also half the price so it’s tempting to cut ‘100% arabica’ ground coffee with robusta, giving an unfair price advantage and defrauding the consumer. This paper demonstrates a screening method based on low-field proton NMR that can detect between 10 and 20% of robusta mixed with arabica using a marker compound, 16-O-methylcafestol, that is present only in robusta. A calibration-free statistical approach for 16-OMC detection is described. An improved limit of detection is possible.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814616312584

ebook - Advances in Food Authenticity Testing

ebook - Advances in Food Authenticity Testing

Advances in Food Authenticity Testing covers a topic that is of great importance to both the food industry whose responsibility it is to provide clear and accurate labeling of their products and maintain food safety and the government agencies and organizations that are tasked with the verification of claims of food authenticity.

The adulteration of foods with cheaper alternatives has a long history, but the analytical techniques which can be implemented to test for these are ever advancing.

The book covers the wide range of methods and techniques utilized in the testing of food authenticity, including new implementations and processes. The first part of the book examines, in detail, the scientific basis and the process of how these techniques are used, while other sections highlight specific examples of the use of these techniques in the testing of various foods.

Written by experts in both academia and industry, the book provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of this important and rapidly progressing field.

http://store.elsevier.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780081002209&pagename=search

Mass spectrometry quantification of beef and pork meat in highly processed food: application on Bolognese sauce.

Mass spectrometry quantification of beef and pork meat in highly processed food: application on Bolognese sauce.

Food frauds have become a very important issue in the field of food quality and safety. The risk of food adulteration is higher in highly processed food and mainly affects high added value foodstuff. The methods currently available to face this issue, PCR and ELISA, are very sensitive and specific, but they have some limitations. In the present work, tandem mass spectrometry is presented as an emerging approach to detect beef and pork meat in very complex and highly processed food matrices, such as Bolognese sauce, both in qualitative than in quantitative way. The detection is achieved using two different marker peptides, specific for beef and pork meat, both deriving from α2-collagen chain. Then, a calibration curve is set up using real sauces made by different percentages of pork and beef meat in a working range from 0 to 100%. The method here developed allows to quantify beef and pork meat in a complex product such as Bolognese sauce.

For full publication please click below:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713516306600

Prandi B., Lambertini F., Faccini A., Suman M., Leporati A., Tedeschi T., Sforza S. (2017).Mass spectrometry quantification of beef and pork meat in highly processed food: application on Bolognese sauce. Food Control, 74, 61-69.


Prediction of food fraud type using data from Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) and Bayesian network modelling. Food Control (2016)

Prediction of food fraud type using data from Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) and Bayesian network modelling. Food Control (2016)

Prediction of food fraud type using data from Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) and Bayesian network modelling. Food Control (2016)

Highlights:
• Food fraud notifications in the RASFF database was analysed in the period 2000–2013.
• A BN model was developed to predict the type of food fraud notifications in RASFF.
• The BN model could predict 80% of the fraud types correctly.

Yamine Bouzembrak, Hans J.P. Marvin

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095671351530205X

Misdescription incidents in seafood sector

Misdescription incidents in seafood sector

Misdescription incidents in seafood sector

Highlights:
• The average percentage of reported misdescription is 30%.
• Misdescription incidents are significantly greater in restaurants than retailers.
• Gadoids, flatfish and salmonids comprise almost the 60% of the total.
• Future surveys should be focused on other commercial species.

Miguel Ángel Pardo, , Elisa Jiménez, Begoña Pérez-Villarreal
Food Research Division, AZTI. Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia, Astondo bidea 609, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia, Spain

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095671351530270X?via%3Dihub

A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach

A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach

A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach

Highlights
• Two tier strategy proposed to detect oregano fraud.
• FT-IR screening and HR-LC-MS confirmatory methods developed.
• Unique biomarkers discovered in adulterants by HR-LC-MS.
• Chemometric calibration models generated.
• 24% of oregano samples tested in UK/Ireland were found to be adulterated.

Connor Black , Simon A. Haughey , Olivier P. Chevallier , Pamela Galvin-King , Christopher T. Elliott

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030881461630680X

Food fraud and the perceived integrity of European food imports into China

Food fraud and the perceived integrity of European food imports into China

Persistent incidents of food fraud in China have resulted in low levels of consumer trust in the authenticity and safety of food that is domestically produced. We examined the relationship between the concerns of Chinese consumers regarding food fraud, and the role that demonstrating authenticity may play in relieving those concerns.


H. Kendall, P. Naughton, S. Kuznesof, M. Raley, M. Dean, B. Clark, H. Stolz, R. Home, M. Y. Chan, Q. Zhong, P. Brereton, L. J. Frewer

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195817

Product attributes and consumer attitudes affecting the preferences for infant milk formula in China – A latent class approach

Product attributes and consumer attitudes affecting the preferences for infant milk formula in China – A latent class approach

Highlights
• Chinese consumers mistrust domestic food supply chains for infant formula.
• Chinese consumers will pay a premium for authenticity cues and European products.
• Authenticity cues give assurance: especially when associated with 3rd party controls.

El Benni, N., Stolz, H., Home, R., Kendall, H., Kuznesof, S., Dean, M., Brereton, P., Frewer, L. , Chan, M-Y., Zhong, Q.,Stolze, M.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329318303811

Chinese consumer's attitudes, perceptions and behavioural responses towards food fraud

Chinese consumer's attitudes, perceptions and behavioural responses towards food fraud

Highlights
• Chinese consumers perceive food fraud to represent a risk to the safety of food.
• To mitigate the perceived risks associate with food fraud, consumers developed a range of risk-relieving strategies.
• The level of perceived risk posed by food fraud was product and consumption situation dependant.

Kendall, H., Kuznesof, S., Dean, M., Raley, M., Chan, M-Y., Home, R., Stolz, H., Zhong, Q., Lui, C. and Frewer, L.J.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713518304109

Development of food fraud media monitoring system based on text mining.

Development of food fraud media monitoring system based on text mining.

Highlights
• A text mining food fraud tool MedISys-FF was developed.
• MedISys-FF collects food fraud articles with high relevance (>75%).
• MedISys-FF reports were compared to those published in RASFF, EMA and HorizonScan.
• The most fraudulent products reported in the media were: meat, seafood and milk.

Bouzembrak,Y., B. Steen, R. Neslo, J. Linge, V. Mojtahed & H.J.P. Marvin.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.06.003

Through-container, extremely low concentration detection of multiple chemical markers of counterfeit alcohol using a handheld SORS device

Through-container, extremely low  concentration detection of multiple  chemical markers of counterfeit  alcohol using a handheld SORS  device

Major food adulteration incidents occur with alarming frequency and are episodic, with the latest
incident, involving the adulteration of meat from 21 producers in Brazil supplied to 60 other countries, reinforcing this view. Food fraud and counterfeiting involves all types of foods, feed, beverages, and packaging, with the potential for serious health, as well as significant economic and social impacts. In the spirit drinks sector, counterfeiters often ‘recycle’ used genuine packaging, or employ good quality simulants. To prove that suspect products are non-authentic ideally requires accurate, sensitive, analysis of the complex chemical composition while still in its packaging. This has yet to be achieved. Here, we have developed handheld spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) for the first time in a food or beverage product, and demonstrate the potential for rapid in situ through-container analysis; achieving unequivocal detection of multiple chemical markers known for their use in the adulteration and counterfeiting of Scotch whisky, and other spirit drinks. ...

David Ellis, Rebecca Eccles, Yun Xu, Julia Griffen, Howbeer Muhamadali, Pavel Matousek, Ian Goodall, and Royston Goodacre

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-12263-0.pdf

Compound-specific δ13C and δ2H analysis of olive oil fatty acids

Compound-specific δ13C and δ2H analysis of olive oil fatty acids

Highlights
• For the first time, measurement of δ2H in fatty acids from olive oil triglycerides.
• Validation of method for δ13C and δ2H analysis of olive oil fatty acids.
• The method can be used for checking the authenticity of olive oil.

Mauro Paolini, Luana Bontempo, Federica Camin

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039914017306069

A novel approach to assess the quality and authenticity of Scotch Whisky based on gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry

A novel approach to assess the quality and authenticity of Scotch Whisky based on gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry

Highlights:
• Two sample handling strategies were compared for isolation of whisky components.
• Non-target fingerprinting of Scotch Whiskies by GC-Q-TOF was applied.
• Chemometric methods were employed for the assessment of the authenticity.
• Characteristic markers were found and tentatively identified.
• Identification of fake samples based on GC-Q-TOF fingerprints is documented.

Michal Stupak, Ian Goodall, Monika Tomaniova, Jana Pulkrabova, Jana Hajslova.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267018310869

PCR analysis of experimental and commercial wines by means of nuclear and chloroplast SSRs

PCR analysis of experimental and commercial wines by means of nuclear and chloroplast SSRs

Genetic identification of varieties of grapevines in finished wines is still debated: several papers showed that DNA is extracted and analysed by PCR rather easily from the must, but few barely reproducible results have been presented for DNA extracted in wines after fermentation. This work experimented a method based on CTAB followed by silica purification with NucleoSpin Plant Kit columns to extract DNA from experimental wines of 1 year and commercial wines of 1 or 2 years...

Caterina Agrimonti, Nelson Marmiroli

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00217-018-3121-5

Egg product freshness evaluation: A metabolomic approach

Egg product freshness evaluation: A metabolomic approach

Egg products' freshness is a crucial issue for the production of safe and high‐quality commodities. Up to now, this parameter is assessed with the quantification of few compounds, but the possibility to evaluate more molecules simultaneously could help to provide robust results.
In this study, 31 compounds responsible of freshness and not freshness of egg products were selected with a metabolomic approach...

Daniele Cavanna; Dante Catellani; Chiara Dall'Asta; Michele Suman

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jms.4256