FoodIntegrity Work Package 1 is in the process of publishing 8 Scientific Opinions on difficult stakeholder derived issues that concern food fraud. The topics were all identified by stakeholders and are intended as documents that describe best practices.
Below are the Links to the Scientific Opinions that have been published so far:
Stable isotope techniques for verifying the declared geographical origin of food in legal cases.
Federica Camin, Markus Boner, Luana Bontempo, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, Simon D. Kelly, Janet Riedl, Andreas Rossmann
What are the scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted methods for food fraud testing and how can they be addressed? – Spectroscopy case study
Terry F. McGrath, Simon A. Haughey, Jenny Patterson, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, James Donarski, Martin Alewijn, Saskia van Ruth, Christopher T. Elliott
The scientific challenges in moving from targeted to non-targeted mass spectrometric methods for food fraud analysis: A proposed validation workflow to bring about a harmonized approach
Daniele Cavanna, Laura Righetti, Chris Elliott, Michele Suman
Sampling guidelines for building and curating food authenticity databases
James Donarski, Federica Camin, Carsten Fauhl-Hassek, Rob Posey, Mike Sudnik
Multivariate statistics: considerations and confidences in food authenticity problems
E. K. Kemsley, M. Defernez, F. Marini
Low-field 1H NMR spectroscopy for distinguishing between arabica and robusta ground roast coffees
Robusta coffee is harsh and bitter compared to the milder, more aromatic arabica. Robusta is also half the price so it’s tempting to cut ‘100% arabica’ ground coffee with robusta, giving an unfair price advantage and defrauding the consumer. This paper demonstrates a screening method based on low-field proton NMR that can detect between 10 and 20% of robusta mixed with arabica using a marker compound, 16-O-methylcafestol, that is present only in robusta. A calibration-free statistical approach for 16-OMC detection is described. An improved limit of detection is possible.
ebook - Advances in Food Authenticity Testing
Advances in Food Authenticity Testing covers a topic that is of great importance to both the food industry whose responsibility it is to provide clear and accurate labeling of their products and maintain food safety and the government agencies and organizations that are tasked with the verification of claims of food authenticity.
The adulteration of foods with cheaper alternatives has a long history, but the analytical techniques which can be implemented to test for these are ever advancing.
The book covers the wide range of methods and techniques utilized in the testing of food authenticity, including new implementations and processes. The first part of the book examines, in detail, the scientific basis and the process of how these techniques are used, while other sections highlight specific examples of the use of these techniques in the testing of various foods.
Written by experts in both academia and industry, the book provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of this important and rapidly progressing field.
Mass spectrometry quantification of beef and pork meat in highly processed food: application on Bolognese sauce.
Food frauds have become a very important issue in the field of food quality and safety. The risk of food adulteration is higher in highly processed food and mainly affects high added value foodstuff. The methods currently available to face this issue, PCR and ELISA, are very sensitive and specific, but they have some limitations. In the present work, tandem mass spectrometry is presented as an emerging approach to detect beef and pork meat in very complex and highly processed food matrices, such as Bolognese sauce, both in qualitative than in quantitative way. The detection is achieved using two different marker peptides, specific for beef and pork meat, both deriving from α2-collagen chain. Then, a calibration curve is set up using real sauces made by different percentages of pork and beef meat in a working range from 0 to 100%. The method here developed allows to quantify beef and pork meat in a complex product such as Bolognese sauce.
For full publication please click below:
Prandi B., Lambertini F., Faccini A., Suman M., Leporati A., Tedeschi T., Sforza S. (2017).Mass spectrometry quantification of beef and pork meat in highly processed food: application on Bolognese sauce. Food Control, 74, 61-69.
Prediction of food fraud type using data from Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) and Bayesian network modelling. Food Control (2016)
Prediction of food fraud type using data from Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) and Bayesian network modelling. Food Control (2016)
• Food fraud notifications in the RASFF database was analysed in the period 2000–2013.
• A BN model was developed to predict the type of food fraud notifications in RASFF.
• The BN model could predict 80% of the fraud types correctly.
Yamine Bouzembrak, Hans J.P. Marvin
Misdescription incidents in seafood sector
Misdescription incidents in seafood sector
• The average percentage of reported misdescription is 30%.
• Misdescription incidents are significantly greater in restaurants than retailers.
• Gadoids, flatfish and salmonids comprise almost the 60% of the total.
• Future surveys should be focused on other commercial species.
Miguel Ángel Pardo, , Elisa Jiménez, Begoña Pérez-Villarreal
Food Research Division, AZTI. Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia, Astondo bidea 609, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia, Spain
A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach
A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach
• Two tier strategy proposed to detect oregano fraud.
• FT-IR screening and HR-LC-MS confirmatory methods developed.
• Unique biomarkers discovered in adulterants by HR-LC-MS.
• Chemometric calibration models generated.
• 24% of oregano samples tested in UK/Ireland were found to be adulterated.
Connor Black , Simon A. Haughey , Olivier P. Chevallier , Pamela Galvin-King , Christopher T. Elliott
Food fraud and the perceived integrity of European food imports into China
Persistent incidents of food fraud in China have resulted in low levels of consumer trust in the authenticity and safety of food that is domestically produced. We examined the relationship between the concerns of Chinese consumers regarding food fraud, and the role that demonstrating authenticity may play in relieving those concerns.
H. Kendall, P. Naughton, S. Kuznesof, M. Raley, M. Dean, B. Clark, H. Stolz, R. Home, M. Y. Chan, Q. Zhong, P. Brereton, L. J. Frewer
Product attributes and consumer attitudes affecting the preferences for infant milk formula in China – A latent class approach
• Chinese consumers mistrust domestic food supply chains for infant formula.
• Chinese consumers will pay a premium for authenticity cues and European products.
• Authenticity cues give assurance: especially when associated with 3rd party controls.
El Benni, N., Stolz, H., Home, R., Kendall, H., Kuznesof, S., Dean, M., Brereton, P., Frewer, L. , Chan, M-Y., Zhong, Q.,Stolze, M.
Chinese consumer's attitudes, perceptions and behavioural responses towards food fraud
• Chinese consumers perceive food fraud to represent a risk to the safety of food.
• To mitigate the perceived risks associate with food fraud, consumers developed a range of risk-relieving strategies.
• The level of perceived risk posed by food fraud was product and consumption situation dependant.
Kendall, H., Kuznesof, S., Dean, M., Raley, M., Chan, M-Y., Home, R., Stolz, H., Zhong, Q., Lui, C. and Frewer, L.J.
Development of food fraud media monitoring system based on text mining.
• A text mining food fraud tool MedISys-FF was developed.
• MedISys-FF collects food fraud articles with high relevance (>75%).
• MedISys-FF reports were compared to those published in RASFF, EMA and HorizonScan.
• The most fraudulent products reported in the media were: meat, seafood and milk.
Bouzembrak,Y., B. Steen, R. Neslo, J. Linge, V. Mojtahed & H.J.P. Marvin.
Through-container, extremely low concentration detection of multiple chemical markers of counterfeit alcohol using a handheld SORS device
Major food adulteration incidents occur with alarming frequency and are episodic, with the latest
incident, involving the adulteration of meat from 21 producers in Brazil supplied to 60 other countries, reinforcing this view. Food fraud and counterfeiting involves all types of foods, feed, beverages, and packaging, with the potential for serious health, as well as significant economic and social impacts. In the spirit drinks sector, counterfeiters often ‘recycle’ used genuine packaging, or employ good quality simulants. To prove that suspect products are non-authentic ideally requires accurate, sensitive, analysis of the complex chemical composition while still in its packaging. This has yet to be achieved. Here, we have developed handheld spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) for the first time in a food or beverage product, and demonstrate the potential for rapid in situ through-container analysis; achieving unequivocal detection of multiple chemical markers known for their use in the adulteration and counterfeiting of Scotch whisky, and other spirit drinks. ...
David Ellis, Rebecca Eccles, Yun Xu, Julia Griffen, Howbeer Muhamadali, Pavel Matousek, Ian Goodall, and Royston Goodacre
Compound-specific δ13C and δ2H analysis of olive oil fatty acids
• For the first time, measurement of δ2H in fatty acids from olive oil triglycerides.
• Validation of method for δ13C and δ2H analysis of olive oil fatty acids.
• The method can be used for checking the authenticity of olive oil.
Mauro Paolini, Luana Bontempo, Federica Camin
A novel approach to assess the quality and authenticity of Scotch Whisky based on gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry
• Two sample handling strategies were compared for isolation of whisky components.
• Non-target fingerprinting of Scotch Whiskies by GC-Q-TOF was applied.
• Chemometric methods were employed for the assessment of the authenticity.
• Characteristic markers were found and tentatively identified.
• Identification of fake samples based on GC-Q-TOF fingerprints is documented.
Michal Stupak, Ian Goodall, Monika Tomaniova, Jana Pulkrabova, Jana Hajslova.
PCR analysis of experimental and commercial wines by means of nuclear and chloroplast SSRs
Genetic identification of varieties of grapevines in finished wines is still debated: several papers showed that DNA is extracted and analysed by PCR rather easily from the must, but few barely reproducible results have been presented for DNA extracted in wines after fermentation. This work experimented a method based on CTAB followed by silica purification with NucleoSpin Plant Kit columns to extract DNA from experimental wines of 1 year and commercial wines of 1 or 2 years...
Caterina Agrimonti, Nelson Marmiroli
Egg product freshness evaluation: A metabolomic approach
Egg products' freshness is a crucial issue for the production of safe and high‐quality commodities. Up to now, this parameter is assessed with the quantification of few compounds, but the possibility to evaluate more molecules simultaneously could help to provide robust results.
In this study, 31 compounds responsible of freshness and not freshness of egg products were selected with a metabolomic approach...
Daniele Cavanna; Dante Catellani; Chiara Dall'Asta; Michele Suman
Characterisation and attempted differentiation of European and extra-European olive oils using stable isotope ratio analysis
- 2H/1H, 13C/12C, 18O/16O of bulk was combined with 13C/12C and 2H/1H of fatty acids.
- Isotopic composition was used to distinguish EU and non EU extra virgin olive oils.
- Application of Random Forest classification and model performance were evaluated
Luana Bontempo, Mauro Paolini, Pietro Franceschi, Luca Ziller, Diego L.García-González, Federica Camin
Compound-Specific δ 15 N and δ 13 C Analyses of Amino Acids for Potential Discrimination between Organically and Conventionally Grown Wheat
We present a study deploying compound-specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of amino acids to discriminate between organically and conventionally grown plants. We focused on grain samples of common wheat and durum wheat grown using synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, animal manures, or green manures from nitrogen-fixing legumes. The measurement of amino acid δ15N and δ13C values, after protein hydrolysis and derivatization, was carried out using gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our results demonstrated that δ13C of glutamic acid and glutamine in particular, but also the combination of δ15N and δ13C of 10 amino acids, can improve the discrimination between conventional and organic wheat compared to stable isotope bulk tissue analysis. We concluded that compound-specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids represents a novel analytical tool with the potential to support and improve the certification and control procedures in the organic sector.
Authors: Mauro Paolini , Luca Ziller , Kristian Holst Laursen , Søren Husted , Federica Camin
Review of validation and reporting of non-targeted fingerprinting approaches for food authentication
Food fingerprinting approaches are expected to become a very potent tool in authentication processes aiming at a comprehensive characterization of complex food matrices. By non-targeted spectrometric or spectroscopic chemical analysis with a subsequent (multivariate) statistical evaluation of acquired data, food matrices can be investigated in terms of their geographical origin, species variety or possible adulterations. Although many successful research projects have already demonstrated the feasibility of non-targeted fingerprinting approaches, their uptake and implementation into routine analysis and food surveillance is still limited. In many proof-of-principle studies, the prediction ability of only one data set was explored, measured within a limited period of time using one instrument within one laboratory. Thorough validation strategies that guarantee reliability of the respective data basis and that allow conclusion on the applicability of the respective approaches for its fit-for-purpose have not yet been proposed. Within this review, critical steps of the fingerprinting workflow were explored to develop a generic scheme for multivariate model validation. As a result, a proposed scheme for “good practice” shall guide users through validation and reporting of non-targeted fingerprinting results. Furthermore, food fingerprinting studies were selected by a systematic search approach and reviewed with regard to (a) transparency of data processing and (b) validity of study results. Subsequently, the studies were inspected for measures of statistical model validation, analytical method validation and quality assurance measures. In this context, issues and recommendations were found that might be considered as an actual starting point for developing validation standards of non-targeted metabolomics approaches for food authentication in the future. Hence, this review intends to contribute to the harmonization and standardization of food fingerprinting, both required as a prior condition for the authentication of food in routine analysis and official control.
Authors: Janet Riedl , Susanne Esslinger , Carsten Fauhl-Hassek
Rapid Method for the Determination of the Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Water in Alcoholic Beverages
This paper demonstrates the first successful application of an online pyrolysis technique for the direct determination of oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of water in alcoholic beverages. Similar water concentrations in each sample were achieved by adjustment with absolute ethyl alcohol, and then a fixed GC split ratio can be used. All of the organic ingredients were successfully separated from the analyte on a CP-PoraBond Q column and subsequently vented out, whereas water molecules were transferred into the reaction furnace and converted to CO. With the system presented, 15–30 μL of raw sample was diluted and can be analyzed repeatedly; the analytical precision was better than 0.4‰ (n = 5) in all cases, and more than 50 injections can be made per day. No apparent memory effect was observed even if water samples were injected using the same syringe; a strong correlation (R2 = 0.9998) was found between the water δ18O of measured sample and that of working standards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean δ18O value and that obtained by the traditional method (CO2–water equilibration/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the newly developed method in this study. The advantages of this new method are its rapidity and straightforwardness, and less test portion is required.
Authors: Daobing Wang , Qiding Zhong , Guohui Li , Zhanbin Huang
Bioactive peptides in plant-derived foodstuffs
A literature survey covering the presence of bioactive peptides in plant-derived foodstuffs is presented. Examples are given of plant peptides associated with a beneficial effect on human health. The main bioactive effects of these peptides are defined and their mechanism of action described, when known. Current understanding of the way in which these molecules are adsorbed, distributed, metabolized and finally excreted is discussed. A particular focus is given to potentially immunomodulatory peptides. The leading analytical assay methods used to evaluate their activity are outlined. Inspection of crop proteomic data revealed that at least 6000 proteins may harbour bioactive peptides. The analysis of these proteins using a Gene Ontology approach has provided a number of insights regarding their occurrence and relevance.
Authors: Elena Maestri , Marta Marmiroli , Nelson Marmiroli
A holistic approach to food safety risks: Food fraud as an example
Production of sufficient, safe and nutritious food is a global challenge faced by the actors operating in the food production chain. The performance of food-producing systems from farm to fork is directly and indirectly influenced by major changes in, for example, climate, demographics, and the economy. Many of these major trends will also drive the development of food safety risks and thus will have an effect on human health, local societies and economies. It is advocated that a holistic or system approach taking into account the influence of multiple “drivers” on food safety is followed to predict the increased likelihood of occurrence of safety incidents so as to be better prepared to prevent, mitigate and manage associated risks. The value of using a Bayesian Network (BN) modelling approach for this purpose is demonstrated in this paper using food fraud as an example. Possible links between food fraud cases retrieved from the RASFF (EU) and EMA (USA) databases and features of these cases provided by both the records themselves and additional data obtained from other sources are demonstrated. The BN model was developed from 1393 food fraud cases and 15 different data sources. With this model applied to these collected data on food fraud cases, the product categories that thus showed the highest probabilities of being fraudulent were “fish and seafood” (20.6%), “meat” (13.4%) and “fruits and vegetables” (10.4%). Features of the country of origin appeared to be important factors in identifying the possible hazards associated with a product.
The model had a predictive accuracy of 91.5% for the fraud type and demonstrates how expert knowledge and data can be combined within a model to assist risk managers to better understand the factors and their interrelationships.
Authors: Hans J.P. Marvin , Yamine Bouzembrak , Esmée M. Janssen , H.J. van der Fels- Klerx , Esther D. van Asselt , Gijs A. Kleter
Application of Multielement Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis to the Characterization of French, Italian, and Spanish Cheeses
The stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S of casein and δ13C and δ18O of glycerol) measured by IRMS of French, Italian, and Spanish cheeses are presented and discussed. Variability factors such as animal-feeding regimen, geographical origin, and climatic and seasonal conditions were studied to check the possibilities of cheese characterization offered by each isotopic parameter. δ13C values of both casein and glycerol appeared to be strongly correlated to the amount of maize in the animal diet. δ15N and δ34S of casein proved to be mostly influenced by the geoclimatic conditions of the area (aridity, closeness to the sea, altitude). δ18O of glycerol was more dependent on the geographical origin of the cheeses and on climatic/seasonal parameters. By applying a multivariate stepwise canonical discriminant analysis, good discrimination possibilities for the different European cheeses were obtained, confirmed by the classification analysis, when >90% of the samples were correctly reclassified.
Authors: Federica Camin , Karine Wietzerbin , Anaisabel Blanch Cortes , Georg Haberhauer , Michéle Lees , Giuseppe Versini
Tutorial: Items to be included in a report on a near infrared spectroscopy project
There are nearly 40 items that should ideally be reported when an NIR (near infrared) spectroscopy project is completed, either as a report or as a scientific paper. However, in our reading of the extensive literature, many of the papers presented or published report no more than 6–10 of these. The purpose of this tutorial is to indicate all of the items and the reasons for reporting them. Most of the items that need to be reported are important for anyone who seeks to duplicate the type of application and methods reported in a peer-reviewed journal article for their own work. Practically, all of the items are significant to any worker if the eventual objective of their work is to extend it to the level of industrial application. The tutorial will summarize these items, and give some explanation for their inclusion. The tutorial should be useful to potential authors, as well as to reviewers.
Authors: Phil Williams , Pierre Dardenne , Peter Flinn
Non-invasive differentiation between fresh and frozen/thawed tuna fillets using near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS)
Fresh tuna is an expensive product sold on local and international markets. The use of ultra-low temperatures for frozen fish fillets is a practice found in the market in order to preserve fish quality for longer time. Fillets frozen bellow −60 °C do not show visual characteristics changes when thawed, being difficult to differentiate between fresh and frozen/thawed fillets. As fresh tuna is more expensive than thawed one, it is important to prevent that frozen/thawed products are sold as fresh in order to not to deceive the consumer. This study investigates the ability of Visible-Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) to detect whether a sample of tuna is fresh or if it has been frozen/thawed. Fresh fillets were locally obtained, prepared in samples, scanned by Vis-NIRS and subsequently frozen. After five, twenty one and thirty five days the samples were thawed at 4 °C for 24 h and re-scanned. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was applied using repeated double cross-validation showing that there is 92% of probability that a fresh sample is predicted correctly as fresh and 82% that frozen/thawed is really a frozen/thawed. This suggests that Vis-NIRS is able to detect the difference between fresh and frozen/thawed tuna samples.
Authors: M.M. Reis , E. Martínez , E. Saitua , R. Rodríguez , I. Pérez , I. Olabarrieta
A Comprehensive Review on the Main Honey Authentication Issues: Production and Origin
Honey is a highly consumed natural product, not only for its taste and nutritional value, but also for its health benefits. Owing to characteristics that are essentially or exclusively related to the specific region or particular local environment and flora, honey can be classified as a premium product generally perceived as a high‐quality and valued product because of its desirable flavor and taste. Consequently, honey has been a target of adulteration through inappropriate/fraudulent production practices and mislabeling origin. Globally, authentication of honey covers 2 main aspects: the production, with main issues related to sugar syrup addition, filtration, thermal treatment, and water content; and the labeled origin (geographical and/or botanical) and “organic” provenance. This review addresses all those issues, focusing on the approaches to detect the different types of honey adulteration. Due to the complex nature of honey and to the different types of adulteration, its authentication has been challenging and prompted the development of several advanced analytical approaches. Therefore, an updated, critical, and extensive overview on the current and advanced analytical methods targeting markers of adulteration/authenticity, including nontarget fingerprint approaches will be provided. The most recent advances on molecular, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methodologies will be described, emphasizing their pros and cons for the identification of botanical and geographical origins.
Authors: Sónia Soares , Joana S. Amaral , Maria Beatriz P.P. Oliveira , Isabel Mafra
Novel quantitative real-time PCR approach to determine safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius ) adulteration in saffron ( Crocus sativus )
This work intended to develop DNA-based methods to detect and quantify safflower as an adulterant in saffron. Species-specific PCR and real-time PCR with EvaGreen dye targeting the ITS region of Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) were successfully proposed. The assays allowed absolute and relative sensitivities of 2 pg of safflower DNA (∼1.4 DNA copies) and 0.1% of safflower in saffron (Crocus sativus L.), respectively. A normalised real-time PCR approach was also proposed in the range of 0.1–20% (w/w) of safflower in saffron, which was successfully validated and applied to commercial saffron samples (stigmas, powders and seasonings). From 19 samples, three were positive to safflower, though at levels below the limit of detection, suggesting cross-contamination rather than adulteration. In this work, specific, sensitive and accurate tools were proposed to authenticate saffron. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt to quantify safflower by a DNA-based approach.
Authors: Caterina Villa , Joana Costa , M. Beatriz P.P. Oliveira , Isabel Mafra
Simultaneous enumeration of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica genome equivalents by melting curve analysis following duplex real time PCR in the presence of SYBR Green
Chicken meat and eggs contaminated with Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni are among the major causes of gastrointestinal infections in humans. Determining the numbers of these pathogens at various stages of the food supply chain is critical to the validation of steps designed to produce safer food. In the current study, duplex real time PCR in the presence of SYBR Green was carried out with DNA extracted from pure cultures of the two pathogens and from chicken meat samples spiked with them. The peak areas of derivative of dissociation curves (PADDC), obtained after 35 PCR cycles were calculated and plotted against known genome equivalents (GEs) in a standard curve. The method provided an estimation for the number of GEs in a 25 μL PCR sample when 102-105 GEs were present, similar to those obtained with duplex qPCR based on TaqMan probes by other authors, but with reduced costs.
Authors: Caterina Agrimonti , Anna Maria Sanangelantoni , Nelson Marmiroli
Ion mobility spectrometry coupled to gas chromatography: A rapid tool to assess eggs freshness
Egg products freshness is a crucial problem for the production of safe and high quality food. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) coupled to Gas Chromatography (GC), provides a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective tool for the detection of freshness issues. A chemometric model was created recording the volatile fingerprints of the different egg products batches, analyzed as fresh, then left at room temperature and daily controlled: 97% was correctly predicted by the model. Beside this, a selection of chemical marker compounds, coherently related with eggs thermal degradation processes, was also identified through the exploitation of Solid-Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatography (SPME-GC-MS) technique and associated to the parallel IMS volatile fingerprinting. The GC-IMS system was successfully challenged with the analysis of mixtures in which the predominant component was fresh egg product and different aged eggs were progressively added as adulterants, certifying the reliability of the method also for the detection of sharper fraudulent activities.
Authors: Daniele Cavanna , Sandro Zanardi , Chiara Dall'Asta , Michele Suman
Discrimination between durum and common wheat kernels using near infrared hyperspectral imaging
According to Italian regulation, 3% of common wheat - CW (Triticum aestivum) in durum wheat - DW (Triticum durum) is the maximum permitted to produce pasta. Therefore, efficient methods for the detection of accidental or intentional contamination of DW products with CW are required. Until now, all the studies dealing with the detection of CW in DW have been mainly based on macroscopic, microscopic or molecular biology methods. In this recent work, near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging was evaluated as a tool for discriminating between both species of wheat at the singulated kernel and bulk sample levels. This study involved the analysis of 77 samples of DW and 180 samples of CW. NIR images were acquired on a total of 4112 kernels at kernel level and on a total of approximately 51.4 kg of kernels at bulk level. To discriminate DW from CW, four approaches were studied based on morphological criteria, NIR spectral profile, protein content criteria and ratio of vitreous/non-vitreous kernels. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used as a classification method for the construction of the discrimination models. Results showed that a combination of morphological and NIR spectral approaches could detect fraud in sample classification with 99% accuracy.
Authors: Philippe Vermeulen , Michele Suman , Juan Antonio Fernández Pierna , Vincent Baeten