The following information is for beekeepers who believe the sudden, unexpected death of a large number of honey bees may be due to pesticide poisoning.
The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme is a unique scheme for monitoring the effects of pesticides on wildlife, including beneficial invertebrates such as honey bees. Information gathered is fed into the approval process for pesticides and helps in the verification and improvement of pesticide risk assessments. It can also result in changes to label recommendations on pesticide products. It is not provided as a personal service to beekeepers wishing to seek evidence for the purpose of civil litigation but can lead to enforcement action being taken by the enforcer if the misuse or abuse of a product is identified as part of this process.
Further details of the scheme can be found in the DEFRA 'Incidents Involving Pesticides and Animals' leaflet.
It is important to note that the WIIS is not a diagnostic service but rather there to investigate the cause of suspected incidences.
The WIIS involves the collaborative work of four separate agencies. It is led by the Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD), formerly the Pesticides Safety Directorate. They are the 'Competent Authority' for the approval and regulation of pesticides and some other chemicals. Natural England (NE) manage the Scheme on the behalf of CRD and undertake site enquiries into pesticide exposure and, the Food and Environment Agency (Fera) carry out disease and pesticide analysis and, if appropriate, the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) carry out post mortems on wildlife. At Fera two teams are involved in honey bee incidents,
Contact your local Bee Inspector or one of the Team at the NBU immediately. They can advise you on what to do. However, it would be a good idea at this point to collect a sample of the affected bees. A sample of at least 200 bees is required for the analysis. It may be advisable to collect a sample of bees for yourself, should you wish to have an independent analysis carried out. You may send this sample directly to the NBU with a covering letter explaining the circumstances if your wish, or wait for a bee inspector to visit. Information on how to send samples to the NBU is provided in the section submitting samples to the NBU.
As soon as possible after you contact us your local bee inspector will contact you and may arrange to visit your apiary. The inspector will assess the situation and the condition of the bees, if they consider that there may be a reason to suspect that a poisoning has occurred a sample of bees will be taken and submitted to the NBU laboratory at York (either to supplement any bees previously submitted or as a first sample). It is also a good idea to contact your local Association spray liaison officer to see if there was any spraying in the area at the time.
Once received at the NBU the sample will be booked in and tested for adult bee diseases using conventional microscopic diagnosis. At the same time the NBU will contact Natural England to alert them of a potential incident. A Natural England Wildlife Adviser will liaise with the ABI and also contact you for any further details on the incident before reviewing the available information. The adviser may arrange for a bee inspector to visit if he has not already done so. With all the information to hand the wildlife adviser will decide whether there are sufficient grounds for the case to be taken forward and to be entered into the WIIS scheme as a suspect pesticide incident. The NE Wildlife Adviser will inform you of that decision and may also arrange a site visit to gather further information about possible sources of pesticide exposure.
All the agencies involved in the scheme make every effort to complete investigations as quickly as possible. However, these procedures inevitably take time, as often there is no field evidence to implicate a particular pesticide, which means it may be necessary to screen for a wide range of compounds. It is likely to take several months before there are any results. However, the NBU will screen for disease within 48 hours of receipt of the sample. The sample will then be passed to the WIU, who usually take up to 12 weeks to complete their analysis, particularly if there is little or no evidence as to the original cause. Once the whole investigation has been completed and the case closed the beekeeper will be informed by Natural England.
Any product that is harmful to bees will be labelled as 'harmful','dangerous', 'extremely dangerous' or 'high risk' and all users must take this information into account when undertaking their risk assessment before use. The Code of Practice for Using Plant Protection Products also tells the user that they should inform beekeepers or the local spray liaison officer 48 hours before applying pesticides at times of year when bees are at risk or if a particular pesticide specifically harms bees to allow the beekeeper time to take any necessary precautions. Details are described on pages 61-62 of this document.
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